A retrospective study.
The aim of this study was to investigate proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) after lumbosacral long fusion according to preoperative Roussouly and lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK) types.
Summary of background data:
Although previous studies have suggested some risk factors for PJK, the effects of preoperative grade of sagittal imbalance and paraspinal muscles degeneration on PJK remain unclear.
Eighty-seven patients who had undergone lumbosacral fusion more than five levels with available clinical and radiological data were enrolled. The presence of PJK defined as sagittal Cobb angle ≥20° between the uppermost instrumented vertebra (UIV) and two supra-adjacent vertebrae at postoperative 2-year radiographs was recorded. Its occurrence was compared according to preoperative Roussouly and LDK types (Takemistu type) and the degree of paraspinal muscle degeneration at the upper level of UIV. Other sagittal radiographic parameters were also measured.
In this series, 28 patients (group I, 32.2%) showed radiological PJK, whereas 59 patients did not show radiological PJK (non-PJK patients, group II, 67.8%) at postoperative 2 years. PJK presented more prevalence in type III and type IV of LDK types (26/27, 96.3%). However, Roussouly types did not show any significant difference in PJK prevalence. In radiological parameters, a larger preoperative SVA (P = 0.018) and PI-LL (P = 0.015) were associated with PJK. Also, smaller quantity and lower quality of paraspinal muscles at T12-L1 level showed significant (P < 0.001) relationship with PJK. On multivariate logistic regression, higher LDK type (odds ratio [OR]: 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-3.56), smaller quantity (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00-1.07), and higher degree of paraspinal muscle degeneration (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 0.92-2.31) were independent predictors of postoperative PJK.
Although various factors are related to PJK following long segment fusion, preoperative conditions such as LDK types and degree of paraspinal muscle degeneration might be related to the development of PJK.Level of Evidence: 3.