Awake spinal fusion

. Sep-Oct 2020;11(5):749-752.

doi: 10.1016/j.jcot.2020.06.003.

Epub 2020 Jun 9.


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Bhavuk Garg et al.

J Clin Orthop Trauma.



‘Awake spinal fusion’ is a novel approach to spine surgery that combines modern anaesthetic and surgical technique resulting in improved patient satisfaction and overall outcomes. Along with techniques of regional anaesthesia, minimally invasive or endoscopic surgical techniques are used to minimize surgical dissection and blood loss. Although, it is a relatively new concept with limited supporting evidence till date, it may prove to be highly effective in reducing post-operative hospital stays, in-hospital complications and cost of surgery while at the same time expediting recovery and rehabilitation. The current review focuses on techniques, advantages, limitations and the available evidence on awake spinal fusion.


Awake; Minimally invasive; Spine; TLIF; Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

Conflict of interest statement

Alok D Sharan – consultant for paradigm spine. The remaining authors declare no conflict of interest.

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