A prospective observational study with a historical reference group.
The main objectives of this study were to determine the impact of preventative multimodal analgesia (PMA) on postoperative opioid requirements and analgesic effectiveness in patients undergoing lumbar fusion surgery.
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:
PMA addresses the multiple pathways of acute and chronic pain by interfering with peripheral and central sensitization and should provide a way to achieve safer and more effective pain management with reduced opioid medication use.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
This study compared postoperative opioid requirement and analgesic effect in a total of 101 patients undergoing elective, 1-level or 2-level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgeries for symptomatic lumbar degenerative disk disease. The PMA patient group included 51 consecutive patients who received 1000 mg of acetaminophen, 300-900 mg of gabapentin, and 200-400 mg of celecoxib 1 hour before their index procedure. The reference group included 50 patients who received 15 mg of morphine-equivalent dose (MED) preoperatively.Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate the effect of PMA on postoperative pain and MED over 4 postoperative days, while controlling for all variables likely to influence these outcomes, including age, sex, baseline opioid use, duration of surgery, postoperative intrathecal morphine use and the administration of muscle relaxants and anticonvulsants.
The differences in opioid requirement and postoperative pain scores were statistically significant on all 4 postoperative days. The effect size varied from -0.54 to -0.99 (34.8%-54.2% MED reduction) for the postoperative opioid requirement and from -0.59 to -1.16 (28.9%-37.3% visual analog scale reduction) for postoperative pain indicating that these measures were reduced by about ½ to 1 SD in the PMA patient group.
PMA is a highly effective and safe method for postoperative pain management in patients undergoing elective lumbar fusion surgeries by improving pain control and reducing opioid requirement.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: