Time-to-event analyses of lower-limb venous thromboembolism in aged patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery: a retrospective study of 1620 patients.

After spine surgery, venous thromboembolism (VTE) is not uncommon in aged patients. This study investigates time-to-event risk factors of postoperative VTE based on medical records of aged patients (age≥60 yr) between January 2013 and December 2018. All participants had undergone lower extremity ultrasonography pre- and postoperatively at the first, second, fourth, eighth, and twelfth weeks. Mann-Whitney U tests and chi-square tests were used for univariate analyses, and Cox regression was utilized for multivariate analyses. A total of 1620 cases were recruited, VTE group (N=382, 23.6%) and non-VTE group (N=1238, 76.4%), aged 67 (IQR 11) years and 65 (IQR 6) years, respectively. The univariate analyses indicated significant differences between the VTE and non-VTE groups regarding advanced age, VTE history, hypertension, fusion, hospital stay, FIB, HDL, D-dimer, and TC (all P<0.05). The Cox regression showed that advanced age (OR=1.108; 95% CI, 1.091-1.126), VTE history (OR=4.962; 95% CI, 3.849-6.397), and hypertension (OR=1.344; 95% CI, 1.084-1.667) were the risk factors for postoperative VTE (P<0.05). The time-to-event analyses indicated that the hazard of VTE formation was highest in the first postoperative week. In conclusion, advanced age, VTE history, and hypertension are main risks for VTE formation, particularly in the first postoperative week.

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