In recent years, different studies determined that the majority of tissues of the human body have progenitor cells. They own a certain capacity for proliferation and differentiation towards different cell lineages. These cells carry out repair functions of small lesions. They also work as a replacement for other cells that die or disappear as a result of the ageing process.
Which tissue is the most relevant?
Since adipose tissue is the most abundant in the human body, experts in the field have studied it more. Also, it is very easy to obtain and very rich source of cells with regenerative properties.
In the past, it was considered as an inert tissue. Nevertheless, since the discovery of pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells in lipoaspirate, and the description of the relatively simple method for obtaining them, we have seen an increasing interest in their use in regenerative medicine.
How does it extract adipose tissue?
Liposuction or aspiration of adipose tissue is currently one of the most performed aesthetic procedures worldwide. This procedure´s main objective is eliminating excess body fat and modelling the body as a consequence.
Currently, lipoaspirate is being used to an increasing extent as a source to isolate cells with therapeutic potential. They are the so-called stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells.
SVF includes a heterogeneous population of cells with different functions. We obtain it after performing washing, digestion and centrifugation of a lipoaspirate sample.
Which cell types are part of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF)?
We can mention the following cell types as part of the stromal vascular fraction:
- Preadipocytes: cells that will give rise to mature adipocytes.
- Fibroblasts: cells responsible for synthesizing and organizing the extracellular matrix of adipose tissue.
- Adult mesenchymal stem cells: with the capacity of differentiation towards different cell lineages and cell control.
- Cells with immunomodulatory capacity: monocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes, etc.
- Hematopoietic progenitors, pericytes: whose function is to stabilize the formation of new blood vessels.
Stem cells extracted from adipose tissue present in the stromal vascular fraction, have the potential to differentiate into various cell lines. These lines are adipogenic, chondrogenic, osteogenic and others, providing additional support for its therapeutic use.
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